Angiogenesis in Adipose Tissue: The Interplay Between Adipose and Endothelial Cells


Adipose tissue is a highly vascularized tissue, and the density of blood vessels is important for the regulation of adipocyte function and adipogenesis. In addition to nutrients and oxygen, the vessels also transport growth factors, cytokines, and hormones that are required for adipocyte function, growth, and survival (Cao, 2013). Furthermore, the vessels regulate the transport of adipokines, cytokines, and growth factors from the AT to other organs and thus promote the endocrine function of the AT. The vascular system controls alteration in the AT microenvironment, which influences the adipocyte function, preadipocyte differentiation, and the AT mass (Cao, 2013; Figure 1). As their size expands oxygen availability is reduced. This mild hypoxic status can induce angiogenesis and remodeling of extracellular matrix to reduce hypoxia (Crewe et al., 2017). In healthy AT, the vessels are lined by a single monolayer of quiescent ECs, which can rapidly switch to the angiogenic/proliferative state in the presence of angiogenic and metabolic signals to form new blood vessels (Draoui et al., 2017). These results prove that with low intensity ultrasound kickstarting angiogenesis in adipose tissue  we are able to change dysfunctional/obese AT and force the body to self regulate it back into healthy lean AT.

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